La compra de viviendas por extranjeros alcanzará su récord histórico este año

El último informe de mercado residencial de JLL prevé que el peso de la demanda extranjera supere este año el 13,2% registrado en 2016, que ya era el porcentaje más alto de la última década, con el comprador británico a la cabeza a pesar de los efectos del Brexit.
La compra de viviendas por parte de extranjeros representó en el año 2016 un 13,2% del total de unidades vendidas en España, el dato más alto de la última década, y todo hace prever que este porcentaje se superará en 2017 y alcanzará su récord histórico al cierre del año, según se desprende del último Informe del Mercado Residencial elaborado por JLL. Se trataría, además, del octavo año consecutivo de crecimiento en el peso del comprador foráneo en España.
Respecto al lugar de origen del comprador, de las 53.500 viviendas adquiridas por extranjeros en 2016, los británicos encabezan el ranking, representando el 19% de las transacciones realizadas. Un porcentaje que sería más reseñable aún de no haber sido por los efectos del Brexit, que previsiblemente ha sido la causa del descenso experimentado, –el año pasado representaron el 23,95%–, junto al comportamiento de su moneda. Les siguen franceses (8%), alemanes (7,6%), suecos (6,7%), belgas (6%) e italianos (5,4%).
“La disminución de la demanda británica a favor de otros países da lugar a una mayor diversificación de nacionalidades, lo que, sumado a unos precios aún muy atractivos para el comprador extranjero, aporta mayor seguridad en cuanto a la evolución de la demanda”, explica Maurice Kelly, director de Residencial y Suelo de JLL.

Más del doble de inversión residencial

La tendencia positiva que atraviesa el mercado tiene su reflejo en el volumen de inversión, que al cierre del primer semestre de 2017 alcanzaba los 888 millones de euros, más del doble que en el mismo periodo de 2016, cuando se sumaron 330 millones en activos residenciales. De hecho, el volumen de los primeros seis meses de 2017 supera ligeramente a toda la inversión del año pasado, que se situó en 802 millones de euros.
Tanto Madrid como Barcelona dominaron las transacciones de demanda de inversión, si bien también se registraron operaciones en ciudades como Valencia, Bilbao, San Sebastián, Sevilla y Málaga, impulsando así la consolidación en la recuperación del sector residencial, y evidenciando la gran cantidad de capital en el mercado en busca de oportunidades de inversión.
En este sentido, el informe señala el cambio que se está produciendo en el sector promotor, en el que se está redibujando la entrada de fondos de inversión internacionales que se alían con empresas locales, conjugando así capacidad financiera y conocimiento local. Así, destacan ejemplos como HIG con Monthisa, Pimco con Lar, KKR con Quabit o el caso de Greenoak, que tiene preparado un fondo para invertir 900 millones en el residencial español y para el cual establecerá alianzas con promotores locales especializados en diferentes mercados. Junto a estos, destacan aquellos fondos que han optado por crear sus propias inmobiliarias, como Castlelake con Aedas Homes, Lone Star con Neinor Homes, y Värde con Dospuntos y la posterior compra de Vía Célere para integrar ambas compañías.

Profesionalización del mercado del alquiler

El mercado de alquiler en España ha ganado peso en los últimos años. De hecho, en la década comprendida entre los años 2001-2011 las viviendas en alquiler aumentaron un 51,1%, según el Censo de Población y Viviendas 2011 elaborado por el INE, una mejora que está provocando una profesionalización del sector.
Según el Banco de España, la vivienda en alquiler representa el 15,6% del total de viviendas principales (año 2015, último dato disponible), lo que supone un incremento de 5 puntos porcentuales respecto al 2000. Otros organismos como Eurostat, elevan esta cifra hasta el 21,8%
El estudio cita diversos ejemplos: de menor tamaño como la socimi Excem Residencial, que ha invertido 12 millones en la adquisición de 20 edificios en alquiler, o la socimi Optimum II Value-Added Residential, que destinará 100 millones a la compra de edificios de viviendas en Barcelona y Madrid; así como de mayor peso como el Grupo Avintia que tiene previsto lanzar este año una socimi de vivienda en alquiler con 500 viviendas valoradas en unos 100 millones de euros. Asimismo, destaca el caso de Testa Residencial, que ya cuenta con una cartera de 8.000 viviendas destinadas al alquiler, y que tras la ampliación de capital permitirá la incorporación de más de 3.300 activos procedentes de los dos bancos accionistas y, de este modo, la compañía aspira a cambiar el modelo de negocio del alquiler residencial en España.

Tecnología como elemento disruptivo

Además, se apunta en el estudio, siguiendo la tendencia observada en el sector terciario, donde ya son muchos los edificios acuñados con sellos energéticos, cada vez son más los promotores que buscan el desarrollo de inmuebles residenciales sostenibles y energéticamente eficientes. Esta innovación pasa tanto por el proceso productivo como en el uso de materiales y soluciones que permitan diseñar y construir viviendas más sostenibles, reduciendo el consumo de energía y de agua y las emisiones de CO2. Por este motivo, el sector residencial está abrazando la tecnología produciendo un profundo cambio en el mercado.
Para certificar este concepto de welness real estate, con construcciones que se preocupan por la salud y satisfacción de los ocupantes, nació en EEUU el sello Wel Building Standard, que ya está llegando a España y supondrá un cambio en el mercado. De hecho, si bien hasta ahora el desarrollo de edificios sostenibles respondía a una demanda del comprador comprometido, pronto será una necesidad ya que en base a una nueva normativa europea que entra en vigor el 31 de diciembre de 2020, todos los edificios que se construyan a partir de entonces tendrán que ser de consumo de energía casi nulo.

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